What Is Fiber Optic Cable?

Published On:

Fiber optic cables can transmit data over long distances without degradation. They can carry signals for hundreds of kilometers without any loss in quality. This makes fiber optic cables crucial for global networks like the Internet on land and sea. Fiber optic cables provide high-speed, high-capacity connectivity for digital communication systems in our interconnected world. 

What Is Fiber Optic Cable?

Fiber optic cables are important for modern telecommunications. They have thin glass fibers that carry data as light pulses, allowing for fast and reliable data transmission over long distances. Due to their high bandwidth, fiber optic cables can transmit large amounts of data quickly and efficiently.

How Fiber Optic Cables Work

Fiber optic cables use total inner reflection to transmit data through light signals. The core guides the light, while the cladding keeps it contained and focused, reducing signal loss and enabling data transmission over long distances without degradation.

Single-mode fiber optic cables are best for long-distance communication because they carry signals over vast distances with minimal loss. They use laser-generated light, which travels further without dispersing like LED-generated light in multi-mode cables. Technology like Wave Division Multiplexing allows single-mode cables to carry multiple data channels simultaneously, increasing their data transmission capacity. Overall, fiber optic cables revolutionize communication networks by providing fast, reliable, and efficient data transmission through light signals.

Fiber Optics vs. Copper Cables

Fiber optics is faster and more reliable than copper cables for communication. The transition from copper cables to fiber optics is evident in the infrastructure of telephone companies, with many now opting for fiber optic cables for long-distance lines. Although copper wires were effective in the past, fiber optics surpassed them in speed and reliability. With advancing technology, there will probably be an increased dependence on fiber optics for communication needs due to its numerous benefits compared to traditional copper cables.

The Differences in Fusion and Mechanical Splicing

In telecommunications and fiber optic networking, fusion splicing and mechanical splicing connect optical fibers. Fusion splicing involves aligning and fusing two fibers with an electric arc for a seamless, low-loss connection. Mechanical splicing aligns fibers and secures them with a sleeve or clamp, but it has higher insertion loss and reflection than fusion splicing. Fusion splicing is ideal for long-haul transmission systems where signal integrity is important.

Fusion splicing has several steps. First, the fibers are stripped of their coatings. Then, the ends are cleaved to be flat. Next, the fibers are aligned using a fusion splicer. The splicer creates an electric arc to melt the glass ends together. Finally, the joint is placed in a protective sleeve. Fusion splicing is popular for high-performance networks needing low loss and reliable connections over long distances.

What is Fiber Splicing?

Fiber optic cable splicing joins cables together for a strong and reliable connection. It reduces signal loss and is essential for long-distance communication.

What is Mechanical Splicing?

Mechanical splicing aligns and connects fibers with a grip, resulting in higher insertion losses than fusion splicing, but it still works for many applications.

Fusion Splicing vs Mechanical Splicing

Advantages of Fusion Splicing

Low loss: Fusion splices typically have a loss of less than 0.1 dB, resulting in minimal signal attenuation at the splice point.

Permanent connection: Fusion splices are permanent connections, making them resistant to factors such as vibration and environmental conditions.

High quality: Fusion splices are durable connections known for their reliability in various environments.

Disadvantages of Fusion Splicing

Fusion splicing requires specialized equipment, such as a fusion splicer, which can be costly. Training is also needed due to its delicate nature and potential for damage if not done correctly. The process can also be time-consuming as it requires precise alignment of the two fibers.

Advantages of Mechanical Splicing

Low cost: Mechanical splicing is considered a cost-effective alternative to fusion splicing because it does not require specialized equipment or training.

Quick and easy: Mechanical splicing is a convenient option for temporary connections or situations where fusion splicing may not be feasible.

Versatile: Mechanical splices are versatile and can be used in various environments, making them a viable option for applications where fusion splicing is not feasible.

Disadvantages of Mechanical Splicing

Mechanical splices have higher signal loss than fusion splices due to more signal attenuation at the splice point. They are less reliable than fusion splices, as they are more susceptible to environmental factors like vibration. Additionally, mechanical splices are considered temporary connections and will degrade over time, requiring replacement.

Both fusion splicing and mechanical splicing are viable options for joining fibers. The best type of splicing will depend on the specific application. Fusion splicing is the best option if a high-quality, permanent connection is required. 

Fiber Optics Uses

Various industries utilize fiber optic cables for dependable and fast connectivity.

Sea Vessels

Fiber optic termination connects optical fibers to components like connectors, splices, and network devices to establish a secure and efficient data transmission pathway. Fiber optics have significantly improved communication at sea, providing high-speed internet, robust data transfer for navigation systems, and reliable communication between different parts of the vessel. Proper fiber optic cable routing and management are essential on maritime vessels due to limited space and the exposure of cables to movement, vibrations, and environmental factors.

Computer Networking and Broadcasting

Fiber optics play a crucial role in computer networking by allowing data to be transmitted quickly over long distances. Optical fiber connections are faster and more reliable than traditional metal cabling. They also have a higher bandwidth capacity, making them ideal for handling large amounts of data traffic in large networks or data centers.

Fiber optics improve connectivity and performance in broadcasting and electronics. Optical fibers allow high-quality audio and video transmission over long distances without degradation. This is crucial for delivering clear, high-definition content to viewers via TV or internet streaming. Fiber optic cables are also less susceptible to electromagnetic interference than copper cables, making them a top choice for transmitting signals in electronic devices like computers and telecommunication equipment. Overall, using fiber optics in broadcasting and electronics enhances communication systems’ efficiency and reliability.

Internet and Cable Television

Fiber optics are key in providing fast and reliable internet and cable television services in modern life. Its ability to transmit data quickly has greatly improved internet speeds and picture quality on TV screens.

Undersea Environments

Fiber optic cables in undersea environments connect countries and enable global communication networks. They provide high-speed internet to remote regions and support real-time data transmission for international trade. These cables are resilient in disasters, ensuring critical communication channels stay operational. Further development of fiber optic technology in undersea environments will enhance global connectivity and communication network reliability.

Military and Space

Optical fiber is essential for communication and signal transfer in the military and space industries. Fast and reliable communication is crucial for successful operations in these industries. Fiber optic cables transmit signals faster than copper cables, allowing for real-time data transfer. They are also immune to electromagnetic interference, making them ideal for sensitive military and space environments.

Fiber optic cables are advantageous for military and space use because they are lightweight and small. In spacecraft, weight is crucial, so the lighter weight of fiber optic cables is a big benefit. The smaller size also allows for more compact installations in equipment or vehicles, saving space. This makes fiber optics ideal for reliable communication systems in military operations and space missions where efficiency and performance are key.


Fiber optics has transformed medicine with its reliable light source for medical tools like endoscopes and surgical microscopes. They are now vital in biomedical sensors for minimally invasive medical procedures. These sensors can give real-time data on vital signs, aiding doctors in monitoring patients during surgeries or treatments. Optical fiber’s immunity to electromagnetic interference makes it ideal for diagnostic tests like MRI scans. Using fiber optics in medicine is improving patient care and advancing the field.

Fiber-optic cabling is gaining popularity due to its fast speeds and high bandwidth despite some initial costs and the need for specialized equipment. Improvements in technology will likely address these issues in the future. At DanBi, our technicians will evaluate your needs and advise you. With our guidance, you can update your network infrastructure to handle growing data demands. Call us today to learn more about the benefits of fiber-optic cabling.